The milli-Kelvin Challenge
enabling fundamental reserach near absolute zero
Recent advances in various branches of solid state physics have led to a growing interest in performing quantum optics, quantum opto-mechanics, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and angle-dependent magneto-transport measurements in the sub-100 mK regime, where many emergent phenomena reside. The quest for elucidation of the latter has spurred the interest in dilution refrigerators (DRs). Recent surge in funding for quantum computing has only boosted this interest further.
Milli-Kelvin measurements have been established for ~60 years, especially for electrical transport. However, even without any moving parts, such experiments are extremely delicate due to limited cooling power, long cooling cycles, and used to require comprehensive know-how in handling the accompanying complex setups.
Yet, over the last decade, closed-cycle (so-called dry) DRs have become the de facto standard for ultra low-temperature applications, effectively replacing their liquid counterparts.
This has facilitated their spread due to the much improved ease-of-use through automation and independence on liquid helium. However, sensitive experiments involving nanopositioning of tips and samples have become even more challenging due to the vibrations induced by the cold heads of the pulse tube coolers which provide precooling in two stages down to 40 K and 4 K.
Therefore, while the cooling to ultra-low temperatures itself has become readily available, delicate experiments such as SPM are still extremely challenging. attocube has gained substantial experience with LT-SPM over the last 20 years, and is able to offer expert service on all levels: 30% of our employees hold a PhD in a scientific field related to our customers’ research. As a result, everyone in our sales team, project leaders in production, and our after-sales support team are dedicated to understand your applications, and to help you achieve your scientific goals utilizing our technology.
Based on the details of the desired application and its technical requirements, attocube offers to support customers on three different levels: single components, mK-ready modules or a complete platform integration including the dilution refrigerator.
attocube is your reliable partner in enabling fundamental research near absolute zero.
Customers who prefer to build their own mK experiments from scratch can choose from various mK-compatible nanopositioners with proven performance to suit their special requirements. attocube supports these efforts by providing special materials, 3D CAD models, and thermal links.read more
For customers looking for mK-ready microscopes, which they intend to integrate themselves into their dilution refrigerator, attocube offers dedicated mK modules with suitable mechanical, geometrical and thermal interfaces. To ensure compatibility, an experienced project leader will take over all required communication with the customer and the DR supplier. Factory tests of the module will be conducted in a convential 4K cryostat.read more
Based on our experience with several lighthouse projects in collaboration with leading scientists, attocube also offers integration and delivery of complete systems comprising DR, microscope and all accessories. Comprehensive project management will be conducted by an experienced project leader, including all planning, production, factory testing, on-site installation and training. The availability of this option may depend on the details of DR, SPM technique, and desired application.read more
Fields of Applications
Imaging and scanning probe microscopy of surface properties on the nanoscale at variable temperatures down to milli Kelvin and combination with high magnetic fields.
Magnetotransport measurements on mesoscopic structures at variable temperatures and in high magnetic fields.
Optics and Spectroscopy
Confocal microscopy and nanoscale spectroscopy at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields on quantum dots, NV centers, 2D materials, nanowires and other materials.
Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope at 30mK
Rotating transport measurement setup at 25mK
Quantized Conduction on Domain Walls of a Magnetic Topological Insulator
Dynamic Visualization of Nanoscale Vortex Motion using attoSTM in an attoLiquid3000
Confocal Microscopy on Quantum Dots at 50 mK
Imaging fractional incompressible stripes in integer quantum Hall effect
Angle-dependent transport measurements at 40 mK
Performance Test of the ANPz30/LT at 35 mK and 15 Tesla
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Nanoscale Virus at 300 mK
Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy at 300 mK with ANP positioners
attoAFM I Mounted on Mixing Chamber
attoAFM III in Toploading Insert
attoAFM III Mounted on Mixing Chamber
Scanning Gate Microscopy at 300 mK
attoAFM/CFM in Toploading Insert
Van der Waals heterostructure under rotation at 40 mK
Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy and Vortex Imaging on NbSe2 with attoAFM III / STM I at 315 mK
Selected mK customer publications
enabling scientific impact
Nonlinear optics in the fractional quantum Hall regime, Nature 572, 91 (2019), P. Knüppel et al.
An integrated nanophotonic quantum register based on silicon-vacancy spins in diamond, Phys. Rev. B 100, 165428 (2019), C.T. Nguyen et al.
Piezo-driven sample rotation system with ultra-low electron temperature, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 90, 023905 (2019), P. Wang et al.
Signatures of tunable superconductivity in a trilayer graphene moiré superlattice, Nature 572, 215 (2019) G. Chen et al.
Full electrostatic control of quantum interference in an extended trenched Josephson junction, Phys. Rev. B 99, 235419 (2019), S. Guiducci et al.
Polaron polaritons in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 057401 (2018), S. Ravets et al.
Manipulating quantum Hall edge channels in graphene through scanning gate microscopy, Phys. Rev. B 96, 195423 (2017), L. Bours et al.
Quantized chiral edge conduction on domain walls of a magnetic topological insulator, Science 358, 1311 (2017), K. Yasuda et al.
Superconducting and ferromagnetic phase diagram of UCoGe probed by thermal expansion, Phys. Rev. B 95, 115151 (2017), A. M. Nikitin et al.
Rotational symmetry breaking in the topological superconductor SrxBi2Se3 probed by upper-critical field experiments, Sci. Rep. 6, 28632 (2016), Y. Pan et al.
Global and local superconductivity in boron-doped granular diamond, Adv. Mater. 26, 2034, (2014), G. Zhang et al.
Observing vortex motion on NbSe2 with STM, Physica C 503, 154 (2014), M. Timmermans et al.
Dynamic visualization of nanoscale vortex orbits, ACS Nano 8, 2782 (2014), M. Timmermans et al.
Design of a scanning gate microscope in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 033703 (2013), M. Pelliccione et al.
Imaging fractional incompressible stripes in integer quantum Hall systems Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 246801 (2012) N. Paradiso et al.
Quantum quench of Kondo correlations in optical absorption Nature 474, 627 (2011) C. Latta et al.
Piezoelectric rotator for studying quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures at high magnetic fields and low temperatures, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 113905 (2010), L. A. Yeoh et al.
Selective control of edge-channel trajectories by scanning gate microscopy Physica E 42, 1038 (2010) N. Paradiso et al.
Technical Background for mK Setups >
Effects of resistive wiring, power dissipation and leakage currents.
Platforms for mK Reserach >
Background information on dilution refrigerators with top- or bottoloading probe.
mK Brochure >
Detailed information on components, modules and integration possiblities for research applications near absolute zero.