Telecom single photon emitters in silicon attoDRY800  LT APO

Telecom single-photon emitters in silicon

Quantum computing and quantum information processing are currently one of the hottest and best funded topics in physics. Single-photon sources are amongst the most promising candidates for photonic realizations of quantum processors, repeaters and sensors. In their recent paper, the group of Georgy Astakhov (HZDR, Dresden) managed to integrate carbon-based color centers (G center) into off-the-shelf Si wafers, resulting in bright and spectrally stable telecom single-photon sources with emission at about 1.28 µm. The experiments were conducted using an LT-APO objective with ANP nanopositioners in an attoDRY800 optical cryostat at 5.7 K. Their findings pave the way toward integrated photonic devices based on existing, scalable silicon technology combined with telecom wavelength range.

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800, and the .


Boosting single-photon quantum key distribution

Engineered quantum light sources emitting single photons on the push of a button are essential components for quantum communication protocols. To maximize the expected secure key and the communication distance for quantum key distribution, the group of Tobias Heindel at the Technische Universität Berlin (Berlin, Germany) developed tools to optimize the performance of quantum key distribution implemented with such engineered single-photon emitters. Exploiting two-dimensional temporal filtering, the expected secure key as well as the communication distance can be optimized. The group implemented their routine in a basic quantum key distribution testbed, comprising a quantum dot device sending single-photon pulses to a four-port receiver analysing the polarisation state of the flying qubits. The single-photon source was mounted on the cold platform of the optical cryostat attoDRY800 as the integration of the platform into an optical table offered the easiest solution for a cold spot on the optical table. Their method further allowed to demonstrate real-time security monitoring via photon-statistics, being an important step towards security certification in quantum communication.

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Boosting single photon quantum key distribution attoDRY800

Easy-to-use platform for single photon experiments

The efficient generation of single, indistinguishable photons is essential for the development of optical quantum information processing. Specifically, the quest of creating single photons on-demand is limited to certain types of sources and techniques. To achieve this, the company Quandela provides optical accessories and state-of-the-art solid-state source devices emitting millions of quantum-pure photons per second.
Combining attocube's closed cycle cryostat attoDRY800 with Quandela's semiconductor quantum dot emitters guarantees a reliable and easy-to-use state-of-the-art solid-state single photon source for complex experiments and protocols.
With this robust setup it was easily possible to use the single-photon sources for on-demand generation of quantum superpositions of zero, one or two photons [1] speed-up multiphoton experiment on-chip [2] and to proving the technology being ready for large-scale fabrication of identical sources [3]

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Easy to use platform for single photon experiments optical cryostat attoDRY800
Easy to use platform for single photon experiments optical cryostat attoDRY800

Charge Carrier Mobility in Perovskite thin films

One of today’s main challenges is a pollution-free resource of energy which allows us to limit global climate change. A promising way is the use of solar energy with the optimal photo absorber material. In a joint project, the groups of Achim Hartschuh at the Ludwig Maximilians University (Munich, D) and Pablo Docampo at Newcastle University (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) presented an optical study about charge carrier transport in a thin film of methylammonium lead iodide - a material which is prototypical for the new class of hybrid perovskites, reaching a solar cell efficiency of more than 22%. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements were performed with the table-integrated closed-cycle cryostat attoDRY800 which allowed for flexible integration of the microscope setup and reliable low-temperature operation.
Photoluminescence measurements indicated a steady decrease of the charge carrier diffusion constant with increasing temperature, see figure. Depending on the structure of the material - tetragonal or orthorhombic crystal phase - the mobility follows a power law dependence as Tm with m = -1.8 +/- 0.1 (tetragonal) or m = -1.2 +/- 0.1 (orthorhombic). The dynamics of the excited charge carriers is in agreement with theoretical models based on a temperature-dependent diffusion constant and several decay channels. Their study opens up the possibility to investigate other material compositions in the same way in the future.

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Charge Carrier Mobility in Perovskite thin films optical cryostat attoDRY800
Charge Carrier Mobility in Perovskite thin films optical cryostat attoDRY800

Exceptional Drift Stability: Cryogenic Wide-field Microscopy

When dealing with optical microscopy at low temperatures, one pre-requisite of paramount importance is the spatial stability: scarce optical signals such as those from single photon sources often imply long acquisition times, and hence require conditions as stable as possible over extended measurement periods. Temperature fluctuations and gradients, combined with mismatched thermal expansion coefficients among the parts, can jeopardize the acquisition of images over a range of temperatures or longer periods of time.
The LT-APO configuration of the attoDRY800 with cold apochromatic objectives has been expressly designed in order to optimize the stability performance. Overall, this minimizes thermal drifts significantly compared to optics sitting at room temperature - be it in vacuum or outside of the cryostat:
· no measurable drift over 40 h at base temperature, and up to 30 K
· smaller by almost a factor of 20 compared to warm objectives over the full temperature range
Also, vibrations are absolutely no concern since there is no measurable difference between cryocooler ON and OFF configuration even at ultimate resolution.

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Exceptional Drift Stability: Cryogenic Wide field Microscopy realized with the optical cryostat attoDRY800
Exceptional Drift Stability: Cryogenic Wide field Microscopy realized with the optical cryostat attoDRY800
Exceptional Drift Stability: Cryogenic Wide field Microscopy realized with the optical cryostat attoDRY800

A nanoscale quantum sensor at high pressures

Pressure affects phenomena ranging from the properties of planetary interiors to transitions between quantum mechanical phases. However, the enormous stress gradients generated in high pressure experimental apparatuses, such as the diamond anvil cell, limit the utility of most conventional spectroscopy techniques. To address this challenge, a novel nanoscale sensing platform was independently developed by three groups (given in alphabetic order): the Jean-Francois Roch group (Université Paris-Sud, FR), the Sen Yang group (Chinese University of Hong Kong, CN), and the Norman Yao group (University of California, Berkeley, USA). The researchers used quantum spin defects integrated into an anvil cell to detect minuscule signals under extreme pressures and temperatures with diffraction-limited spatial resolution.
For this purpose, Norman Yao and colleagues utilized the table-integrated closed cycle attoDRY800 cryostat - the ideal platform for precise and rapid temperature control of a diamond anvil cell while offering a large sample chamber and free-beam optical access. The convenience of the closed-cycle cryostat allowed the researchers to publish their results to arXiv just nine months after installation.

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

A nanoscale quantum sensor at high pressures optical cryostat cryostat attoDRY800

Non equilibrium phase transitions in quantum fluids of light optical cryostat cryostat attoDRY800

Non-equilibrium phase transitions in quantum fluids of light

The understanding of many quantum phenomena in solid state physics heavily relies the ability to measure the dispersion relation of the fundamental excitations of the system. In the blossoming field of cavity polariton research, this dispersion relation is directly encoded in the propagation direction of the light emitted by the sample. To decrease the background signal and, therefore, increase the detected signal's quality, thin planar samples are used to perform transmission spectroscopy measurements. The group of Martin Kroner (ETH Zürich, Swizerland) performs such spectroscopy measurements using a table integrated closed cycle cryostat, the attoDRY800, as cold platform for the sample. By allowing for free space optical access to the sample from both sides, the attoDRY800 setup is an ideal platform to carry transmission measurements. In addition, the cold platform’s compactness results in a high stability and leaves most of the optic’s table space for the optical setup.

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Further reading:
Link to the group's webpage


Polariton dispersion in strong coupling regime optical cryostat attoDRY800

Polariton dispersion in strong coupling regime

The group of Prof. Atac Imamoglu (ETH Zurich) uses the attoDRY800 for phase contrast microscopy. The video (link below) shows the polariton dispersion in the so-called strong coupling regime, measured via white light transmission. The x-axis represents the in-plane momentum k||, the y-axis the energy E. The time evolution is given by the exciton-cavity detuning. In the inset, the corresponding spectrum at k|| = 0 is shown.

(Data courtesy of Martin Kroner; video created by Thomas Fink and Olivier Faist; Quantum Photonics Group, ETH Zurich)

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Further reading:
Related video on Youtube


Single Photon Generation with Controlled Polarization from InGaN Quantum Dots

The research groups led by Prof. R. Taylor & Dr. R.A. Oliver in the UK have successfully generated single-photons with polarized light emission and predefined polarization axis at temperatures spanning from around 5 K to above 200 K using InGaN quantum dots. These quantum dots offer several advantages, such as high experimental repetition rates in the range of GHz, and for their growth as a planar structure, a single routine without complex geometrical engineering.
The emission spectra of these quantum dots were characterized using micro-photoluminescence techniques, while the samples were kept cool inside an optical cryostat equipped with attocube positioners. This table top cryostat, the attoDRY800, is able to reach temperatures ranges from below 5 K up to even above 300 K with very good thermal and vibrational stability.
The single-photons generated by these quantum dots are bright enough to allow their optical properties to be measured even above 200 K, a temperature considered to be the Peltier cooling barrier. Hence, this suggests in principle, that these quantum dots could be applied in integrated electronic circuits. And thanks to the achievable polarization control, these quantum dots are good candidates for on-chip polarization encoding in quantum cryptography.

To know more about the work done by Robert Taylor, Rachel Oliver and their research teams, please visit their websites here: https://users.physics.ox.ac.uk/~rtaylor/ and here http://www.gan.msm.cam.ac.uk/directory/oliver
(Data courtesy of R. Taylor, Oxford University)

This measurement was realized with the attoDRY800.

Single Photon Generation with Controlled Polarization from InGaN Quantum Dots optical cryostat attoDRY800
Single Photon Generation with Controlled Polarization from InGaN Quantum Dots optical cryostat attoDRY800